At the 9th Anti-Corruption Dialogue Meeting held recently in Hanoi , Swedish Ambassador Staffan Herrström warned against the “resource curse” in developing countries with abundant resources.
The talk focused on corruption in the management of extractive resourcesâ€”which include subterranean mineral, earth metal, oil and natural gas resources.
“The World Bank’s list of highly indebted poor countries consists of 12 of the world’s most mineral-dependent states and six of the world’s most oil dependent states. At the same time, 1.5 billion people living in resource-rich countries earn less than $2 per day,” he said.
“These figures are a warning that wealth derived from the extraction of resources and the wealth of nations do not always go hand-in-hand,” he told the biannual dialogue.
Herrström blamed corruption for the country’s resource wealth not translating into less poverty and welfare for its citizens.
“Vietnam has relatively plentiful volumes of untapped extractive resources,” he said “Experiences from ‘resource curse’ countries suggest that fighting against corruption is crucial to ensuring the translation of resource wealth into increased growth and less poverty.”
Herrström called for greater transparency in revenue management, bidding and licensing.
He also urged Vietnam to weed out dishonest officials and companies to prevent corruption in extractive industries.
“Company payments and government revenues must be subject to disclosure,” he said. “Citizens must be able to scrutinize the collection, disbursement and investment of the revenue [generated in these industries].”
The ambassador hailed Vietnam’s Minerals Mining Law which will take effect this July. The law stipulates that the Prime Minister and provincial administration will designate which mines will be assigned to miners and which mines will be put out to bid.
“We know that the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is a strong tool for improving transparency and accountability,” he added. “We anticipate that the Vietnamese government will speed up the process to join this initiative.”
At a press briefing on Tuesday, Minister Marie Ottosson, head of Sweden’s Development Cooperation Section also stressed the importance of joint efforts between government agencies, civil society groups, private companies, and the international community in tackling corruption in the extractive industry.
Ottosson said Vietnam is home to over 70 types of minerals and 5000 deposit ore mines, including promising reserves of bauxite and titanium. The nation’s rare earth metal reserves and crude oil production ranked 7th in the Asia and Pacific region and the 3rd in Southeast Asia, she said.
Ottosson added that empirical studies in different mining provinces in Vietnam have demonstrated a negative correlation between rich resources and poverty reduction.
“A presentation from Binh Dinh Province pointed out clearly that weak management makes illegal transportation of titanium across the border workable, leading to losses of commodities that should translate into revenue,” she said. “Titanium extraction also negatively affected shrimp production, forestry, and the environment surrounding these mining communities.”